[27], Venus Obsequens ("Indulgent Venus"[28]), Venus' first attested Roman epithet. Servius speculates this as reference to a "Fountain of Acidalia" (fons acidalia) where the Graces (Venus' daughters) were said to bathe; but he also connects it to the Greek word for "arrow", whence "love's arrows" and love's "cares and pangs". The Latin name Venus ('love, charm') stems from Proto-Italic *wenos- ('desire'), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *wenh₁-os ('desire'; compare with Messapic Venas, Old Indic vánas 'desire'). Despite her identification with Aphrodite, Venus was a native Roman goddess who was not adopted from anywhere. When Caesar was assassinated, his heir, Augustus, adopted both claims as evidence of his inherent fitness for office, and divine approval of his rule. In some Latin mythology, Cupid was the son of Venus and Mars, the god of war. [33][34], In 217 BC, in the early stages of the Second Punic War with Carthage, Rome suffered a disastrous defeat at the battle of Lake Trasimene. [citation needed]. [1][2], It is cognate with the Latin venia ("favour, permission") through to common PIE root *wenh₁- ("to strive for, wish for, desire, love"). In many of her appearances, she was accompanied by symbols such as the rose—a symbol of fertility, sexual passion, and female genitalia. The vibrant sunset in the upper right leads the eye to Venus’s ruby cheeks and necklace... ... From there, Mercury’s cloak and the fires of Vulcan’s forge attract our attention and the eye moves on to Cupid’s splendid red velvet pouch..... ... the conversation between Venus and Cupid with their similar gestures toward the landscape brings us full circle. [71], Venus is remembered in De Mulieribus Claris, a collection of biographies of historical and mythological women by the Florentine author Giovanni Boccaccio, composed in 1361–62. Roman tradition made Venus the mother and protector of the Trojan prince Aeneas, ancestor of the Roman people. Venus was also a patron of the ordinary, everyday wine drunk by most Roman men and women; the seductive powers of wine were well known. Roman theology presents Venus as the yielding, watery female principle, essential to the generation and balance of life. Another etymological origin correlates Venus with the goddess Juventas, whose tutelage encompasses youth and rejuvenation. Diove, or Iove are often associated with Love especially in correlation with Juno & Jove (Jupiter), a possible etymological origin of the word Love itself. Vergil's Aeneas is guided to Latium by Venus in her heavenly form, the morning star, shining brightly before him in the daylight sky; much later, she lifts Caesar's soul to heaven. CUPID. History and Mythical Facts about Apollo Fact 1 about Cupid: His mother was Venus, the daughter of Jupiter and Dione, the wife of Vulcan although the father of Cupid … Aphrodite Urania.). Venus is the goddess of love and fertility in the Roman pantheon. In M. Henig and A. The Venus de Milo, sculpted by Alexandros of Antioch c. 130 BCE.Generally regarded as a masterpiece of the classical era, the Venus de Milo depicts the goddess in an easy, natural pose while still displaying her seductive charm. Lipka, Michael, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach, Brill, 2009, pp. Ancient etymologies associated Juno's name with iuvare, "to aid, benefit", and iuvenescere, "rejuvenate", sometimes connecting it to the renewability of the moon cycle. It is notable as the first collection devoted exclusively to biographies of women in Western literature.[72]. When mortals are struck by his arrows they fall instantly in love, wanted or not. In Christian art, the bird often represents the human soul. Petronius, in his Satyricon, places an image of Venus among the Lares (household gods) of the freedman Trimalchio's lararium. In another, king Ancus Marcius' wife and other Roman women lost their hair during an epidemic; in hope of its restoration, unafflicted women sacrificed their own hair to Venus. This name has attached to an iconological type of statue of Aphrodite/Venus. [56] Roman opinions differed on whose festival it was. 1650 - 1700, by Peter Paul Rubens, Mars Being Disarmed by Venus (1822–25) by Jacques-Louis David, Birth of Venus (1863) by Alexandre Cabanel, Tannhäuser in the Venusberg (1901) by John Collier, Iris presenting the wounded Venus to Mars by Sir George Hayter, 1820 - Ante Library, Chatsworth House. His Greek counterpart is Eros. [54] Common girls (vulgares puellae) and prostitutes gathered at Venus' temple just outside the Colline gate, where they offered her myrtle, mint, and rushes concealed in rose-bunches and asked her for "beauty and popular favour", and to be made "charming and witty". Images of Venus have been found in domestic murals, mosaics and household shrines (lararia). Murcia was associated with Rome's Mons Murcia (the Aventine's lesser height), and had a shrine in the Circus Maximus. A festival of Venus Genetrix (September 26) was held under state auspices from 46 BC at her Temple in the Forum of Caesar, in fulfillment of a vow by Julius Caesar, who claimed her personal favour as his divine patron, and ancestral goddess of the Julian clan. Shorn of her more overtly Carthaginian characteristics,[35] this "foreign Venus" became Rome's Venus Genetrix ("Venus the Mother"),[36][37] As far as the Romans were concerned, this was the homecoming of an ancestral goddess to her people. It was sited somewhere near the Aventine Hill and Circus Maximus, and played a central role in the Vinalia Rustica. However, in Latin literature it was told that Cupid’s mother was Venus, while his father was not mentioned at all. She seems to have been a favourite of Lucretius' patron, Memmius. (cf. Kaufmann-Heinimann, in Rüpke (ed), 197–8. Vulcan's should be outside the city, to reduce the dangers of fire, which is his element; Mars' too should be outside the city, so that "no armed frays may disturb the peace of the citizens, and that this divinity may, moreover, be ready to preserve them from their enemies and the perils of war. Cupid is the Roman version of the Greek Eros. It was the largest temple in Ancient Rome. [1][3] The Latin verb venerārī ("to honour, worship, pay homage") is a derivative of Venus.[1]. Venus' cult began in Ardea and Lavinium, Latium. (1970). Some Roman sources say that girls who come of age offer their toys to Venus; it is unclear where the offering is made, and others say this gift is to the Lares. In 55 BC he dedicated a temple to her at the top of his theater in the Campus Martius. The Sibylline oracle suggested that if the Venus of Eryx (Venus Erycina, a Roman understanding of the Punic goddess Astarte), patron goddess of Carthage's Sicilian allies, could be persuaded to change her allegiance, Carthage might be defeated. As a "classical" figure for whom nudity was her natural state, it was socially acceptable to depict her unclothed. Octavian's opponents, Antony, Cleopatra and the Egyptians, assisted by bizarre and unhelpful Egyptian deities such as "barking" Anubis, lose the battle.[63]. He is often portrayed as a charming, chubby little boy, but this mischievous youth can wreak havoc. (eds.) Elisabeth Asmis, "Lucretius' Venus and Stoic Zeus". She is essentially assimilative and benign, and embraces several otherwise quite disparate functions. At other times, or in parallel myths and theologies, Venus was understood to be the consort of Vulcan. Venus Genetrix ("Venus the Mother"), as a goddess of motherhood and domesticity, with a festival on September 26, a personal ancestress of the Julian lineage and, more broadly, the divine ancestress of the Roman people. He will bring Cupid’s wings and arrows to Venus. [45], Vitruvius recommends that any new temple to Venus be sited according to rules laid down by the Etruscan haruspices, and built "near to the gate" of the city, where it would be less likely to contaminate "the matrons and youth with the influence of lust". He is shown forging a wing for Cupid. Mercury stands next to Vulcan in a red cloak with a winged-cap and caduceus. Come fall in love with the Fired Arts at WMODA. and Scullard, H.H. [39][40] Likewise, a shrine to Venus Verticordia ("Venus the changer of hearts"), established in 114 BC but with links to an ancient cult of Venus-Fortuna, was "bound to the peculiar milieu of the Aventine and the Circus Maximus" – a strongly plebeian context for Venus's cult, in contrast to her aristocratic cultivation as a Stoic and Epicurian "all-goddess". Venus’ body and the tree behind her conveniently divide the picture into areas that reveal important elements of the story and add variety to the composition. She is addressed as "Alma Venus" ("Mother Venus") by Lucretius in the introductory lines of his vivid, poetic exposition of Epicurean physics and philosophy, De Rerum Natura. Venus absorbs and tempers the male essence, uniting the opposites of male and female in mutual affection. A form of Ashtart who formed a third of the Heliopolitan Triad, in which she was the consort of Jupiter (Baʿal) and mother of Mercury (Adon). 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